Livestock Research for Rural Development 34 (3) 2022 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Replacement value of maize with millet processing waste meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers

Samuel I, Oyedeji O1, Makinde O J2 and Ibe E A3

Department of Agric Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi
1 Lakeland College 5707 College Drive, Vermilion, AB T9X 1K5, Canada
isaacsamuel25@yahoo.com
2 Department of Animal Science, Federal University of Gashua
3 Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Uwana

Abstract

An experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty (180) four weeks old broilers to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with millet processing waste meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers. The birds were randomly allocated to five (5) dietary treatments with three replicates, each consisting of twelve (12) birds in a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were maize-based diet (control), while diets 2 to 4 had maize replaced by millet at 20, 40, 60, and 80 percents, respectively. Data generated were statistically analyzed using SAS software (2008), while the (p>0.05) differences between treatments means were separated by the Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. The results indicated that the body weight gain of birds was not (p>0.05) from those of the control group. However, there were (p<0.05) in the final weight. Also, carcass characteristics were (p>0.05) among treatment groups except for the thigh of birds fed diets 2 to 4 which were (p<0.05) from that of the control. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. It was concluded that replacement of maize with MPWM up 80% can serve as a good alternative energy source in the diets of finishing broilers.

Keywords: broilers, carcass, millet processing waste, performance, replacement


Description of problem

The poultry industry can harvest first-class protein for human nutrition as well as serve as a source of revenue while contributing significantly to economic growth in developing countries (Samuel 2018). In the previous decades, poultry species have received increasing attention as sources of animal protein dedicated to feeding the world’s growing population. Such a huge progression in poultry productivity is due to a combination of biological, genetic, and management factors, including short generation intervals associated with rapid progress in management systems and feed availability and quality (Lukaszewicz 2010). Persistent increase in the cost of poultry feeds is a major global challenge of poultry production industry (Dalolio et al 2016). High cost of conventional animal feed ingredients in most of the developing countries has motivated scientists to search for alternative sources of feed ingredients (Raju 2016).

The utilization of agro-industrial by-products as feed ingredients is an important strategy to reduce the feed cost and enhance the sustainable feed resources for poultry production (De Vries et al 2012). By-products of industrial processes are appealing because they often have considerable amounts of protein, starch, and fat. In Nigeria, by-products of such include millet processing waste (MPWM) which is a sievate of wet milling of millet after obtaining the flour (pap) which is prepared by milling and sieving millet soaked in water for 24 hours. This sievate, known as Dusa (Hausa) and Eeri (Yoruba), is relatively available in large quantities and often discarded as waste in both the rural and urban communities in Nigeria. Therefore, to reduce the cost of raising birds through exploration of new feed ingredients, alternatives that can efficiently replace maize, particularly as an energy source in poultry feeds, must be sought. The study aimed at addressing this need through the replacement of maize with millet processing waste meal in the diets of finishing broilers.


Materials and methods

The experiment was conducted at the poultry unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Agricultural Science Education, Federal College of Education (Technical), Bichi, Kano. The State is located within the Northern Savannah Zone on the latitude 11 9’ 45’’ N and longitude 7 38’ 8’’E, at an altitude of 610 m above sea level (Ovimaps 2019). The millet processing waste used for the experiment was purchased from a local market in Bichi, Kano State. The sievates were air-dried for three days to further remove any retained moisture and to increase the dry matter. They were thoroughly cleaned, and all impurities removed before being mechanically mixed with other feed ingredients.

Proximate analysis

The proximate composition of maize, millet processing waste was determined according to the methods of (AOAC 1990), Dry matter (DM), % crude protein (CP), % crude fibre (CF), % ether extract (EE), and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were determined. The diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirement standards (N R C 1994). Samples of the dietary treatments were analysed for proximate composition using the appropriate method described by (AOAC 1990). One hundred and eighty (180) four weeks-old broilers were used to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with millet processing waste meal (MPWM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finisher broilers. The birds were randomly allocated to five (5) dietary treatments with three replicates, each consisting of twelve (12) birds in a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were formulated such that diet 1 (control), and diets 2 to 4 had maize replaced by millet processing waste meal at 20, 40, 60 and 80 percent, respectively. Data generated were statistically analysed using (SAS 2008), while the significant differences between treatments means were separated by the Duncan Multiple Range Test at a 5% level of significance.


Results and discussion

The proximate composition of the millet processing waste meal (MPWM) and maize is presented in Table 1. All the values obtained for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, ether extract, and nitrogen-free extracts fall within the range for nutrient content in cereals as reported by Olomu (2011). The gross and chemical composition of experimental diets is presented in Table 2. The diets were formulated to meet the nutrient standard for broilers (N R C 1994).

Table 3 shows the performance indices of finisher broilers fed experimental diets. Weight gain of birds fed MPWM up to 80% replacement level was (p>0.05) similar to the control group. Replacing maize with millet processing waste meal did not adversely (p>0.05) affect weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality. Birds fed the replacement diet at 20% had the highest (p<0.05) final weight, while those fed 60% replacement diet had (p>0.05) lower final weight among dietary treatments. However, there were (p<0.05) better performance for birds fed higher replacement levels of millet processing waste meal and the birds fed 80% replacement diet had final live weight similar (p>0.05) to the 0% group. Replacement of maize with increasing levels of millet processing waste increased (p<0.05) final live weight, body weight gain, and enhanced feed conversion ratio. The enhanced performance of birds fed MPWM could possibly be attributed to the fact that MPWM contains some enzymes needed to break down the unavailable polysaccharides for use by the birds as additional energy (Gidado et al 2020). This result is not in agreement with those obtained by Adejinmi et al (2013) who attributed decreasing the live weight of birds to increasing levels of highly fibrous feedstuff in a ration. This observation, however, agrees with the reports of  Ibe et al (2013) who reported that there is no adverse effect on feed intake when maize was substituted with guinea corn in broiler ration. This result shows that it is economically advantageous to feed up to 80% millet processing waste meal to finisher broilers since Millet substituted diets at higher levels 60% and 80% resulted in lower feed cost per unit weight gain (₦179.62 and ₦182.86 respectively).

The result of carcass characteristics of finisher broilers fed Millet substituted diets is presented in Table 4. The result showed that replacing maize with millet processing waste meal did not adversely (p>0.05) affect most of the parameters, except the breast. Nevertheless, breast weight tended to increase with increasing levels of MPWM and was significantly greater in the birds fed a 60% replacement diet compared with those fed other diets. These observations agreed with the reports of Makinde et al (2014) who reported higher breast weight in birds fed maize diet replaced with rice offal.

Table 1. Proximate composition of maize and millet processing waste

Nutrient (%)

Maize

Millet Processing Waste

Dry matter

93.60

90.15

Crude Protein

8.60

12.97

Ether Extract

3.20

6.20

Crude Fibre

3.80

0.95

Ash

1.81

0.57

NFE

82.59

79.31

ME (kcal/kg)

3519.69

3333.10

NFE: Nitrogen Free Extract determined by: NFE=100-(%CP+%CF+%EE+%Ash)



Table 2. Gross composition of experimental finisher broiler diet (5-8weeks)

Ingredients

Levels of maize replacement with millet processing waste meal (%)

0

20

40

60

80

Maize

60.00

47.04

35.28

23.52

11.76

MPW

0.00

11.76

23.52

35.28

47.04

Groundnut cake

22.25

21.20

20.00

18.70

17.40

Soya bean meal

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

Fish meal

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

Limestone

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

0.65

Bone meal

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

Palm oil

1.05

1.05

1.05

1.05

1.05

Common salt

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Vit. Premix

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Lysine

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Methionine

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Total

100

100

100

100

100

Calculated Analysis

Met Energy (kcal/kg)

2883

2882

2882

2882

2882

Crude Protein (%)

21.16

21.15

21.19

21.18

21.18

Ether Extract (%)

5.60

6.36

6.38

6.39

6.41

Crude Fibre (%)

3.52

4.35

5.20

6.04

6.88

Calcium (%)

1.24

1.25

1.27

1.28

1.29

Avail. P (%)

0.60

0.63

0.63

0.63

0.64

Lysine (%)

1.15

1.19

1.24

1.28

1.29

Methionine (%)

0.46

0.46

0.46

0.46

0.46

Meth + Cyst (%)

0.93

0.92

0.92

0.91

0.90

Biomix premix supplied per kg of diet: Vit. A, 10,000IU; Vit.D3, 2000 IU; Vit E, 23 mg; Vit. K, 2mg; Vit.B1, 1.8mg; Vit. B 2, 5.5mg; Niacin, 27.5mg; Pantothenic acid, 7.5mg; Vit. B12, 0.015mg: Folic acid, 0.75mg; Biotin, 0.06mg; Choline chloride, 300mg; Cobalt, 0.2mg; Copper, 3mg; Iodine, 1 mg; Iron, 20 mg; Manganese, 40 mg; Selenium, 0.2 mg; Zinc, 30mg; Antioxidant, 1.25mg. ME=Metabolisable Energy



Table 3. Performance of finishing broilers fed varying levels of millet processing waste as replacement for dietary maize (5 – 8 weeks)

Parameters

Levels of maize replacement with millet processing waste (%)

SEM

0

20

40

60

80

Initial weight (g)

1075.30

1150.67

1106.33

1055.11

1157.11

95.60

Final weight (g)

2719.30b

2811.30a

2766.58b

2635.95c

2723.09b

54.80

Weight gain (g)

1649.00

1560.63

1660.25

1580.84

1565.32

93.65

Ave daily gain (g)

78.50a

74.30a

79.10a

75.30a

74.50a

5.41

Total Feed Intake (g)

4302.2ab

4254.1a

4285.9a

4178.5a

4268.1a

154.7

Feed Intake (g/d/b)

205a

203a

204a

199a

203b

7.37

FCR

2.61

2.73

2.60

2.65

2.73

0.18

abc Means in the same row with different superscript are significantly different. FCR: feed conversion ratio



Figure 1. Effect on live weight gain of broilers of replacing
maize the Millet processing waste


Table 4. Carcass characteristics of broiler finisher fed varying levels of millet processing waste as replacement for dietary maize (5 – 8 weeks)

Parameters

Levels of maize replacement with millet processing waste (%)

SEM

0

20

40

60

80

Live weight (g)

3075.00ab

3171.67a

3063.33ab

2695.00b

2801.67ab

229.84

Dressed weight (g)

2825.00ab

2920.70a

2805.00ab

2466.67b

2573.33ab

215.53

Carcass weight (g)

2325.00

2405.00

2291.67

2046.67

2096.67

194.83

Dressing %

75.56

75.73

74.84

75.97

74.86

2.34

Heart (%DW)

0.63a

0.55ab

0.58a

0.59a

0.49b

0.04

Thigh (%DW)

24.20a

22.20b

22.20b

21.70b

22.60b

0.74

Breast (%DW)

22.30

24.20

23.20

24.50

23.50

1.72

Back (%DW)

16.60

16.40

16.00

16.90

15.50

1.04

Gizzard (%DW)

3.21

3.49

3.03

2.97

2.92

0.32

Liver (%DW)

2.36a

2.5a

3.03a

2.27a

2.46a

0.38

abc Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different


Conclusion


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